55 28TH ANNUAL CRIME PREVENTION GUIDE ADDICTION TREATMENT continued Harm Reduction Programs Harm reduction programs are most often used by people who are already experiencing harm from their alcohol or other drug use, have not been successful in treatment, are not interested in treatment or choose to continue to use drugs. There are many types of harm reduction programs. Needle distribution or exchange programs give out clean needles, exchange used needles for new needles and provide syringes and other supplies to intravenous (IV) drug users. They also provide information on how to safely dispose of old needles. These activities help decrease the risk of contracting serious infections such as HIV and hepatitis C through using or sharing needles. Opioid substitution therapy replaces the illegal use of heroin and opioid prescription pain medications with methadone, uprenorphine/ naloxone, or other substitutes. Supervised consumption services prevent overdoses and other harms by providing a safe, supervised environment for drug use. Overdose prevention and response provides training and naloxone kits for people who are at risk of overdosing on opioids and those who might be present to respond to someone having an overdose. Naloxone can temporarily reverse the effects of an opioid overdose providing time to see emergency medical attention by calling 911. Withdrawal management (detox) Better known as detoxification or detox, withdrawal management helps people who are physically dependent on alcohol or other drugs safely withdraw from them.Withdrawal symptoms range from mild (e.g., anxiety, tremors, poor sleep) to severe and potentially life-threatening, and can include: Hallucinations; Racing heart; High blood pressure; and Seizures There are different types of detox services available across Canada. Medical detox programs use medications and medical supervision to help you safely withdraw from alcohol or other drugs. Social detox programs do not use medications, but provide a supportive and supervised environment for you to withdraw from alcohol or other drugs. Some provinces offer home detox where you can receive support to withdraw in your own home. Your doctor or other healthcare provider can help you decide if you need detox and which type would be the best fit. It is important to enter treatment immediately after detox. People who have gone through withdrawal from opioids such as heroin or prescription pain medication have lost their tolerance for the drug. If a person decides to use the drug again, and mistakenly believes he or she can use the same amount of the drug as before detox, there is a risk of overdose or even death. Withdrawal from alcohol and some prescription medications can be dangerous and even life threatening. A doctor should always supervise withdrawal. Continuing care Finishing a structured treatment program or completing regular therapy and counselling sessions is a big accomplishment. Like other chronic health conditions, addiction requires long-term care and support. Work with your healthcare provider to develop a continuing care plan that is right for you. Continuing care plans can help maintain the healthy changes you made during treatment.