27 26TH ANNUAL CRIME PREVENTION GUIDE RADICALIZATION Canadian Security Intelligence Service The radicalization of Canadians towards violent extremism continues to be a significant concern to Canadian national security. Essentially, radicalization is the process whereby individuals move from holding moderate, mainstream beliefs towards adopting extremist political or religious ideologies. Individuals who become radicalized may support or become involved in violent extremism. Activities can range from attack planning against Canadian targets, sending money or resources to support violent extremist groups, and/or influencing others (particularly youth) towards adopting radical ideologies. Radicalized individuals may also seek to travel abroad for terrorist training or to engage in fighting. Such individuals can pose very serious threats to the security of Canada. Not only are they now seasoned fighters who harness the ability to conduct attacks here, but they may also serve in influencing others. The participation of two young Canadians in an attack on an Algerian petroleum facility in January 2013, where up to 60 individuals died, as well as the widely-reported travel of two other young Canadians to North Africa, allegedly for extremist purposes, is indicative of this trend and highlights the challenge posed by the travel of radicalized individuals for terrorist purposes. In order to generate a better understanding of the phenomenon, the Service conducts research on radicalization in Canada. CSIS has found that for those influenced by the AQ narrative, violent extremists have come from varied social and age levels, are spread widely across the educational spectrum and can appear fully integrated into society, making detection especially difficult. Violent extremism, broadly speaking, refers to the process of taking radical views and putting them into violent action. While radical thinking is by no means a problem in itself, it becomes a threat to national security when Canadian citizens, residents or groups promote or engage in violence as a means of furthering their radical political, ideological or religious views. The motivations and drivers that inspire them towards violent action may be due to real or perceived grievances, for example, animal rights, white supremacy, Al-Qaeda-inspired, environmentalism and anti-capitalism. Homegrown and imported violent extremism has been on the Canadian scene for many decades. It is not limited to any specific race, ethnicity, religion or culture. There is no single profile or pathway for individuals who come to embrace violent extremism. It is important to note that the threat of violent extremism in Canada evolves constantly. Today's threat is not necessarily the threat of tomorrow. VIOLENT EXTREMISM Public Safety Canada