27TH ANNUAL CRIME PREVENTION GUIDE 49 supervised driving and restrictions on the passengers, night-time driving, high-speed roads and alcohol consumptions. They are designed to allow new drivers to gain on-theroad experience in low-risk circumstances. Research has consistently shown that GLPs are associated with significant reductions in crash deaths and injuries among affected drivers. MADD Canada recommends a comprehensive graduated licensing program lasting at least three years for all new drivers, and express police powers to enforce it. The program should include two stages: • Stage 1: Driver must be supervised at all times by a licensed adult and subject to stringent conditions. This stage should be a minimum of 12 months. • Stage 2: Driver can drive unsupervised in some situations but must be supervised in more challenging situations. This stage should last a minimum of 24 months. MADD Canada also recommends the minimum driving age should be 16. Alcohol Ignition Interlocks Alcohol ignition interlocks are an effective tool in the fight to stop impaired driving, yet they are not used broadly or consistently across the country. Using the same technology as the roadside breathalyzers administered by police, an ignition interlock prevents a car from starting or remaining operational if the driver’s breath indicates his or her blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is over a pre-set limit. In conjunction with rehabilitation and educational programs, interlock programs help modify the behaviour of drinking drivers. The technology gives offenders who have lost their licences a chance to regain conditional driving privileges while at the same time ensuring they cannot operate a vehicle if they are impaired. The recidivism rate of interlock program participants is up to 90% lower than that of non-participants. Once the interlock is removed, the rates are comparable between program participants and non-participants. This highlights the needs to incorporate rehabilitation programs for interlock participants to deal with the problems that led to the offence. Despite the evidence of their effectiveness, interlock usage is limited across the country. With approximately 34,000 impaired driving convictions annually (for the year 2007/2008), only about 13,000 interlocks were used in 2008. Significantly more could be done to encourage and/or mandate participation by eligible offenders. All provinces and territories, except the Yukon, have some form of ignition interlock program for convicted impaired drivers. However, these programs are often voluntary. The participation rate in voluntary programs is just 10% of those convicted. MADD Canada recommends mandatory interlocks for all convicted impaired driving offenders, including reduced provincial suspensions to encourage participation. While some may be surprised by MADD Canada’s support of a program which results in convicted offenders getting their licences back earlier, it is our position that offering early licence reinstatement, along with rehabilitation and remedial programs, to first-time offenders CANADA’S IMPAIREDDRIVING RECORD IS POOR BY INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS CONTINUED