27TH ANNUAL CRIME PREVENTION GUIDE 51 (the most common drugs are cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and depressants.) Drug impaired driving is also a serious concern among young people, with several regional and national surveys indicating more young Canadians report driving after using cannabis than after consuming alcohol. Drug impaired drivers are currently detected through special enforcement techniques used by police, including the standardized field sobriety test (SFTS) and drug recognition evaluation (DRE). MADD Canada recommends that provinces and territories establish administrative programs for drug-impaired drivers which would mirror existing programs for alcoholimpaired drivers: • A prohibition on the presence of illicit psychoactive drugs for all drivers under 21 or with less than five years driving experience. This approach would mirror the .00% BAC requirement on all young and new drivers. The proposed legislation should include express police enforcement powers and mandatory licence suspensions for violating the condition. • Similar to the administrative licence suspension program for drivers with BACs of .05% and higher, a parallel program should be in place for: drivers whose ability to drive, based on an SFST or DRE, is reasonably believed to be impaired by drugs or a combination of drugs and alcohol; and for drivers who refuse to submit to an SFSST, DRE or other lawfully demanded test. CANADA’S IMPAIREDDRIVING RECORD IS POOR BY INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS CONTINUED Crashes involving alcohol and/or drugs are the leading criminal cause of death in Canada. On average, approximately 4 people are killed each day in crashes involving alcohol and/or drugs. In 2012, there were 2,546 crash deaths. Of those, 1,497 deaths, or 58.8%, involved drivers who had some alcohol and/or drug presence in their systems. • 476 deaths, or 18.7%, occurred in crashes involving drivers with a positive alcohol reading. • 614 deaths, or 24.1%, occurred in crashes involving drivers with a positive drug reading. Cannabis was the drug most frequently found. • 407 deaths, or 16%, occurred in crashes involving drivers with positive readings for both alcohol and drugs. Please note that these statistics document the presence of alcohol and/or drugs and do not reflect impairment levels. The statistics reflect the growing rate of drug presence in drivers involved in fatal crashes. In fact, drugs are now present more often than alcohol in drivers involved in fatal crashes. ALCOHOL & DRUG PRESENCE IN FATAL MOTORVEHICLE CRASHES